Criminal Code

The problem, however, dates back centuries and is a fairly recent manifestation of discriminatory conduct by law enforcement and the criminal justice system that dates back to at least the s in the United States for people of African descent. At its core, racial profiling is about racism and stereotypes and assuming the worst of people based on a biased perception of reality that is then projected and multiplied, affecting and endangering everyone of that same race, ethnicity, nationality or religion. Let’s define what it is: Racial profiling is the use of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or national origin by law enforcement agents as a factor in deciding whom to investigate, arrest or detain absent evidence of a specific crime or criminal behavior. In , South Carolina founded the first slave patrol in which white men policed black slaves on plantations and hunted for escaped slaves. Black people, the majority of which were slaves in South Carolina and other southern states, had to show passes to prove they had permission to be off the plantation, or, if they had been liberated, they had to carry freedom papers to prove they were free. Black people were subjected to interrogations and harassment and whippings and other physical punishment — even death — if they were determined to have run away. Like modern-day racial profiling, a black person’s skin color, not their actions, made them subject to discriminatory treatment from law enforcement. Today, black people are often suspected of committing crimes like drug possession, which then leads to a vehicle search, a stop-and-frisk or a pat-down.

COINTELPRO News (2016 – 2017)

State judiciary websites, state offices of Vital Statistics, and a state-by-state guide to obtaining corporate fillings make up the rest of this book. This legal encyclopedia is written in narrative form and arranged topically with citations to statutes, administrative law and cases. A dictionary of legal terms can be found in the last volume. Is in paper copy for the current year plus one. The CFR is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government.

The Center for Sex Offender Management (CSOM) is a national project that supports state and local jurisdictions in the effective management of sex offenders.

The ” McLibel case ” two were involved in the longest-running case in UK history for publishing a pamphlet criticising McDonald’s restaurants. Bentham’s utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the 20th century. The judges of the International Court of Justice in the Hague King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash , also revered as the god of justice. A depiction of a 17th-century criminal trial, for witchcraft in Salem A march in Washington D.

This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. A trial in the Ottoman Empire, , when religious law applied under the Mecelle A painting of the South Sea Bubble , one of the world’s first ever speculations and crashes, led to strict regulation on share trading. The Court of Chancery , London, early 19th century Iustitia ” Lady Justice ” is a symbolic personification of the coercive power of a tribunal: The famous Carbolic Smoke Ball advertisement to cure influenza was held to be a unilateral contract A trade union protest by UNISON while on strike Max Weber in , Weber began his career as a lawyer, and is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law.

The New York Stock Exchange trading floor after the Wall Street Crash of , before tougher banking regulation was introduced The debating chamber of the European Parliament The United Nations’ New York headquarters houses civil servants that serve its member states. The G20 meetings are composed of representatives of each country’s executive branch.

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and , words. First page of the edition of the Napoleonic Code.

U.S. Department of State

Royal Proclamation of October 7, This document has been called the “Magna Carta of Indian Rights” and has been held by the courts to have “the force of a statute which has never been repealed”. It issued after the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War and was intended to organize the governments of Britain’s new acquisitions on the mainland of North America. It also issued after Pontiac’s Rebellion had begun in the summer of and was, in part, intended to end “The Great Frauds and Abuses” which had marked the dealings with Indians in respect of their lands west of the Appalachian height of land, especially in the Ohio Valley.

A TV news broadcast last week on ABC affiliate, Channel 10 (KGTV), in San Diego, California, featured a woman, Facika Tafara, who reported that she is being stalked by perpetrators who are using the sort of counterintelligence disruption operation tactics described in this tly, the stalkers have been conducting a variant of “gaslighting” operations (break-ins intended to.

Philosophy of law “But what, after all, is a law? Normative jurisprudence asks “what should law be? The concept of “natural law” emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in connection with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas , notably his Treatise on Law. Hugo Grotius , the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason.

Bentham and Austin argued for law’s positivism ; that real law is entirely separate from “morality”. While laws are positive “is” statements e.

Links to Supreme Court of Canada Libel Decisions

What do you think of Anonymous these days? The pursuance system [see below] will be a mechanism for conducting civic affairs in such a way that everyone has the same clearly-defined rights to operate, to invent, to rise according to their talents and dedication; although Anonymous was allegedly something along those lines, the reality is that some people controlled the mediums, such as IRC servers, where much of the important work was conducted. The continuing struggle, one between the guerrilla warriors of the information and transparency movement pitted against the abuses of the Deep State, will continue.

As will the barnacle determination of Assange in occupying that little bit of Ecuador in Knightsbridge.

The Secretary is the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense. Subject to the direction of the President and to this title and section 2 of the National Security Act of (50 U.S.C. ) he has authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense.

Secretary of Defense a There is a Secretary of Defense, who is the head of the Department of Defense, appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. A person may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force. Subject to the direction of the President and to this title and section 2 of the National Security Act of 50 U.

B Each national defense strategy shall including the following: C The Secretary shall seek the military advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in preparing each national defense strategy required by this subsection. D Each national defense strategy under this subsection shall be presented to the congressional defense committees in classified form with an unclassified summary. E In a year following an election for President, which election results in the appointment by the President of a new Secretary of Defense, the Secretary shall present the national defense strategy required by this subsection as soon as possible after appointment by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

F In February of each year in which the Secretary does not submit a new defense strategy as required by paragraph A , the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees an assessment of the current national defense strategy, including an assessment of the implementation of the strategy by the Department and an assessment whether the strategy requires revision as a result of changes in assumptions, policy, or other factors.

COINTELPRO News (2016 – 2018)

First page of the edition of the Napoleonic Code. Civil law is the legal system used in most countries around the world today. In civil law the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation—especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government—and custom.

Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as “the Science of Justice” and “the Art of Justice”. Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state.

Aid to victims of terrorism. Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery, and it is the largest manifestation of slavery today. At least , persons annually, primarily women and children, are trafficked within or across international borders. Approximately 50, women and children are trafficked into the United States each year. The sex industry has rapidly expanded over the past several decades.

It involves sexual exploitation of persons, predominantly women and girls, involving activities related to prostitution, pornography, sex tourism, and other commercial sexual services.

10 U.S. Code § 113 – Secretary of Defense

Donn de Grand-Pre Col. Donn de Grand-Pre, U. Also served as Commander of Special Troops for the U. Served as radio operator in World War II. Became commissioned officer in Infantry troop leader and paratrooper, as well as a combat troop commander and intelligence officer with the 27th Infantry “Wolfhound” Regiment in Korea –

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The article breaks down the cost of a romance in Canada: This statistic is much higher than I expected. Naturally, the first thing I thought about is: There are many expenses related to divorce and separation in Canada. Just some examples of the costs include: That being said, family law legal matters are still expenses often prohibitively so.

Do the heavy lifting on the front end. Consider a cohabitation agreement, document things in writing i. Of course, it is important that the information you obtain is from reliable and free sources for example: There is lots of information on the internet about separation and divorce and certainly not all of it is good. If you can get accurate and reliable information you will be in a better position to consider your options and ask your legal counsel strategic questions.

I often tell my clients that if they cannot fall asleep because they are worrying about their family law case reading the Spousal Support Advisory Guidelines or the Child Support Guidelines is a pretty sure bet for sleep within a half hour.

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Sexual victimization is unfortunately fairly common in the United States. About one in every five girls and one in every seven boys are sexually abused by the time they reach adulthood i. One in six adult women and one in every 33 adult men experience an attempted or completed sexual assault in their lifetime ii.

This website provides responsible criticism of the 9/11 Commission Report by senior military, intelligence and government officials. It provides experienced professional opinions about the terrorist attacks on the world trade center and the pentagon.

Himmelstein and Hannah Bruckner, Pediatrics Jan. The article states that lesbian, bisexual and gay youth are singled out more than their heterosexual counterparts for punishment from authorities, including police and school officials, according to a new study. It offers recommendations for helping law enforcement agencies achieve a smooth, rapid public warning activation program.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: The project also helps local law enforcement agencies schedule firearm safety events in their communities. As of March , Project ChildSafe had distributed more than 9 million safety kits in nearly 12, communities in 46 states. Sex Crimes Against Children: Risky Actions and Overreactions. Project Safe Childhood aims to combat the proliferation of technology-facilitated sexual exploitation crimes against children.

Among other resources, the website contains a guide available on-line, and a list of on-line publications. National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse.

U.S. Department of State

Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Justice Ontario Courts Includes Court of Appeal judgments and endorsements, to present; judges directories and rules of court for the Superior Court of Justice and Ontario Court of Justice; Family Law rules and forms as well as fine schedules for the lower courts. Parliament of Canada Virtual Library The objective is to provide Parliament with comprehensive and reliable information, documentation, research and analysis while maintaining extensive and pertinent collections to support the functions of legislation and representation; and to provide information about Canada’s Parliament to the public.

Quicklaw Powered by LexisNexis, Quicklaw is a Canadian research subscription service which provides current legislation, primary and secondary content, legal analysis, commentary and forms. ServiceOntario Publications Provides books, maps and other government publications. Supreme Court of Canada Direct links to justices’ bios, court administration and history and judgments..

Administrative Law The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (AE /3:) Is in paper copy for the current year plus one. The CFR is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government.

The app allows users to only be identified by their usernames. However, third party websites allow users to search for others by age and gender — making the app particularly attractive to pedophiles and predators and the bane of law enforcement. Nicole Lovell, 13, disappeared from her home last Tuesday and her body was found four days later Virginia Tech student David Eisenhauer left , 18, has been charged with the abduction and murder of year-old Nicole Lovell.

I can be whoever I want to be. I can get anybody I want. He explained that predators could simply download the Kik messenger app for a mobile phone, make up a fake username, and through Kik, download another app called Hit Me Up. The app is also popular with social media savvy teenagers, including Lovell. Kik is a smartphone messenger app that allows users anonymity Kik was founded in by a group University of Waterloo students who decided to build a company that would shift the center of computing from the PC to the smartphone.

On the Rarity of Foreign Women and Chinese Boyfriends/Chinese Husbands

Basic principles Jurisdiction The basic principle applied by Canadian courts is that a court may exercise jurisdiction only if it has a “real and substantial connection” with the subject matter of the litigation. Forum conveniens Even if a Canadian court has jurisdiction, it may decline to hear the case if it concludes that the court of some other jurisdiction is more convenient and appropriate for the pursuit of the action and for securing the ends of justice.

This statute substantially codifies the common law but litigants and their legal counsel should give its provisions close consideration. The Ontario Court of Appeal dismissed an appeal from ONSC and held that an internet libel action based on a newspaper article uploaded in Israel to the defendant newspaper’s Hebrew and English-language websites can and should proceed in Ontario.

BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Peretti suggests the site could eventually merge with rival publishers to negotiate better terms with companies like Facebook and Google — Jonah Peretti, the chief executive, says his company could eventually merge with other online publishers in order to negotiate better terms with tech platforms like Facebook.

History of criminal justice Ancient policing Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by “prefects” for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period. They were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, and they oversaw the civil administration of their “prefecture”, or jurisdiction.

Under each prefect were “subprefects” who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could also be women. In ancient Greece , publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security.

Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves.

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